Trade routes have been significantly disrupted this year in efforts to contain COVID-19. The effects of this are already showing: global growth is set to contract by 4.9% and growth in sub-Saharan Africa will contract by 3.2%.
This will get worse if continued restrictions further impede trade. The World Trade Organisation has warned that at worst, global trade could collapse by a third this year, and at best, it will contract by 13%, similar to the recorded drop after the 2009 financial crisis.
This has fundamental consequences – both direct and indirect – for many. For instance, within the first few weeks in March when some trade routes were initially suspended, flower exports from Kenya to the European Union fell by 50%, affecting around a million people.
Trade enables formal firms to flourish, which will be essential for economic recovery. It also protects the urban poor operating in the informal economy against poverty and hunger. The continuation of trade is even more essential for their survival as they operate without an adequate safety net.
Restricting trade also affects supply and prices. Import disruptions have resulted in shortages, including food, and prices have spiked. This has brought economic hardship to small traders and consumers across the continent.
In the current economic climate, trade is not a luxury that can be temporarily avoided. In Africa, there’s a growing body of evidence showing that firms – from large to very small – have been severely affected by restrictions in the movement of goods and people. For many this means not only losing a livelihood, but a direct impact on their ability to meet basic needs.
Economic impact on formal firms
A study of formal firms in Uganda found that exports fell by 57% at the start of its lockdown, compared to a year earlier. It also found that imports, which these firms rely on to produce, fell by 43%.
The researchers of the study simulated what would happen with continued import reductions of this magnitude. The results were devastating: 6.6% of all formal firms in the Ugandan economy would likely have to close, resulting in a reduction of formal employment by 4.7%.
Fortunately, the Ugandan government ensured trade could continue throughout lockdown. Exports and imports started to rebound relatively quickly.
The impact of slower trade has also been tracked in Ethiopia, where a survey of firms showed that trade disruptions affected a fifth of small, medium, and large firms due to a lower supply of raw materials and intermediate goods, as well as the restricted movement of workers.
The importance of the role played by formal firms can’t be overstated. Evidence suggests that in sub-Saharan Africa the labour productivity of formal firms is four times higher than that of informal firms. This is because formal firms are able to scale and specialise in a way that informal operations cannot. In addition, across the continent, taxes on incomes, profits and capital gains accounted for around 25% of all national tax revenues.
But smaller informal firms will have an equally crucial role to play in the recovery.
Urban informal sector
In developing cities, most firms operate in the informal sector, accounting for more than 66% of employment across the continent.
A 2016 census of informal firms in the Greater Kampala area showed that informal firms were very small: about 60% have only one employee and 70% have an annual turnover of UGX 10 million (US$2,700) or less. Over 90% of micro firms were operating close to, or at, the poverty line.
The challenge for the poorest of these firms operating in cities is that the majority of their income is used to buy food in urban markets. Therefore, trade is not only a question of economic activity, but more importantly of survival. It is also why the urban poor are the hardest hit by lockdown measures.
Evidence from a small-scale trader survey in Lagos showed that during the lockdown, most firms were making zero revenue. And these effects seem to be persistent: in Sierra Leone, for example, where the economy has reopened, profits for these firms are still nearly 50% lower than pre-lockdown levels.
In Uganda, which has by some estimates already eroded nearly 10 years of gains in poverty reduction efforts, the sharpest spike in poverty levels to date was in the capital city, Kampala. It is also why there have been increases in hunger and malnutrition across the country.
Uganda is not alone: simulations of an eight-week lockdown across Africa show that eight million people, including 3.9 million children under five years, would be severely food deprived.
Trade is not a luxury
Rethinking global guidelines on handling pandemics is not an easy task given that the contexts to which they will be applied are extremely diverse. Perhaps the most efficient guidelines will be those that allow for targeted, data-driven, flexible and localised approaches.
Understandably, however, during this pandemic and for future ones, much of the world also looks for global standards set by bodies like the World Health Orgnisation. But when setting these standards it is important to remember that for many, health versus the economy is a false dichotomy. Rather, for many in poor urban areas, trade is not only a means of making ends meet, but of avoiding the trap of poverty and hunger. Nikita Sharma, the Managing Editor for the IGC, also contributed to this article
Video communication platform Zoom is among the technology companies that have primarily benefited from the coronavirus pandemic. The Zoom app downloads and stock price surge highlights the company’s tremendous rise this year.
Data presented by Buy Shares indicates that in September 2020, Zoom added about 46.26 million downloads across Android and iOS platforms. On Android, Zoom downloads stood at 32.17 million, making it the most popular platform. For iOS, the iPhone recorded 10.86 million downloads, while the iPad had 3.23 million Zoom app downloads.
The research also overviewed Zoom stock prices on a year to date (YTD) basis. The stock has grown by a staggering 623.97%. At the start of the year, Zoom stock price was $71.9, while on October 21st, it stood at $520.54. Zoom’s all-time stock price was registered on October 14th at $537.02.
Zoom among leading beneficiaries from pandemic
Zoom gained popularity this year due to the coronavirus pandemic. People became more dependent on Zoom’s video-calling for business, educational, and personal use. This is after authorities imposed lockdowns meaning that people could no longer meet physically. Zoom automatically became a pandemic beneficiary for offering remote communication solutions.
The growth by Zoom was primarily due to subscriptions provided to new customers due to increasing demand. This demand was broad-based across industry verticals, geographies, and customer cohorts. Landing these new customers gave Zoom and its investors confidence that the end of the COVID-19 pandemic would not be the end of the boom times for Zoom. Most importantly, the company’s stock also soared after corporate clients showed confidence in the company with mega deals.
As the shares skyrocketed, Zoom has capitalized by announcing a new product dubbed OnZoom. This product allows businesses and people to host events, including ticketed events, among other related gatherings. The original work is projected to give Zoom a bullish outlook even after the pandemic.
Zoom 2020 boom threatened by security, privacy concerns
From the data, Zoom’s rise fluctuated at some point of the year, posing a threat to its growth following security and privacy concerns. But in the immediate aftermath of its skyrocketing popularity, Zoom faced intense criticism over privacy and security practices, causing some companies and institutions to drop the platform.
The company failed to address glaring securing and privacy concerns as it grew. There were questions regarding the company end to end encrypted calls and Zoom booming, where uninvited guests interrupted meetings. Additionally, there were allegations of sharing personal information with advertisers.
However, after Zoom paused on developing new features on April 1st to focus on handling securing and privacy issues, the company got back on track. Most importantly, Zoom gained users’ and investors’ trust after reacting quickly to address security problems. Most importantly, the weekly security briefing was the main contributor towards Zoom’s stock rise from May.
Even after lockdown measures were eased, Zoom stock has continued to grow since the pandemic ushered in a culture of working from anywhere. The pandemic accelerated the adoption of cloud-based communications, and Zoom being a pioneer, continues witness growth.
Despite some missteps on the security and privacy front, Zoom appears poised to continue to grow and evolve. It has established itself as an essential tool for companies looking to ride out the pandemic with workers distributed remotely.